Classes use the concept of abstraction. Python is a multi-paradigm programming language. Protected data or functions, more or less act like public but should not be accessed from outside. This is capable of executing function calls like: The above add function will always take 2 numbers as input, but what if you want to add 3 numbers at once or maybe 4 numbers. For example, Ramis an object who has attributes such as height, weight, color etc. This is yet another example of operator overloading. A class encapsulates the relevant data and functions that operate on data by hiding the complex implementation details from the user. In class, both data, and the functions that will be operating on that data are bundled as a unit. Polymorphism, or Poly + Morph, means "many formsb. Basics : OOP in Python In this section, we will see concepts related to OOP in Python … Polymorphism can be achieved in tow different forms, they are: In OOP, it is possible to make a function act differently using function overloading. Precisely, Polymorphism is the property of any function or operator that can behave differently depending upon the input that they are fed with. An object can be anything like - a student while designing a school's record registry, or a pen in stationary's item management program, or a car in manufacture's car database program. In this tutorial, we will elaborate more on these topics. An object is an entity that has attributes and behaviour. For example. Meaning, it supports different programming approach.One of the popular approach to solve a programming problem is by creating objects. Now we can call add() function with two, three or four parameters. Now that all the basic features are defined in our class Car, we can create its objects by setting values for properties name, model etc, and the object of the class Car will be able to use the functions defined in it. Hence, in OOP you can simply define the function add once again, this time with 3 parameters, and this mechanism is known as Function Overloading. Much as it may sound like a capsule, it is pretty much the same. For example. An object is the fundamental concept of OOP but classes provide an ability to define similar type of objects. At the same time there are many data scientists who are unaware of OOP concepts and still excel in their job. In OOP, data inside the classes can be defined as public, private or protected. This is known as Object-Oriented Programming (OOP).An object has two characteristics: 1. attributes 2. behaviorLet's take an example:Parrot is an object, 1. name, age, color are attributes 2. singing, dancing are behaviorThe concept of OOP in Python focuses on creating reusable code. We will be covering these in details in inheritance tutorial. Conceptually, objects are like the components of a system. All rights reserved. The answer is encapsulation. Python is capable of reading operators differently depending upon the situation. © 2020 Studytonight. We can see here, how + operator when used with numbers performs mathematical addition operation but when used with strings it performs concatenation. It may be any real-world object like the mouse, keyboard, chair, table, pen, etc. Also, hiding, or setting up privacy levels, can be done for functions as well. For example, let's say there is a class named Car, which has some basic data like - name, model, brand, date of manufacture, engine etc, and some functions like turn the engine on, apply brakes, accelerate, change gear, blow horn etc. For example, if Mahatma Gandhi, Sachin Tendulkar, you and me are objects, then Human Being is a class. As you can see here, function add() now has multiple forms. The object is an entity that has state and behavior. You know what operators are: Addition, Division, Multiplication etc. Data hiding helps us to define the privacy of data from the outside world or to be precise, from other classes. As explained in the previous tutorial, inheritance is about defining a set of core properties and functions in one place and then re-using them by inheriting the class in which they are defined. There are three important characteristics by which it is identified, they are: A class is a blueprint where attributes and behaviour is defined. As already discussed in the previous tutorial, an object is a physical entity, whereas class is a logical defintion. The user needs to focus on what a class does rather than how it does. In python we will define it as. Encapsulation, is one of the core reason for the existence of an object. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a method of structuring a program by bundling related properties and behaviors into individual objects. Private data or function are the ones that cannot be accessed or seen from outside the class whereas, public data or functions can be accessed from anywhere. The reason behind doing this is to create several levels of accessing an object's data and prevent it from accidental modification. For example, consider a function add(), which adds all its parameters and returns the result. If you aim to be a great python developer and want to build Python library, you need to learn OOP (Must!). Objects. All functions have a built-in attribute __doc__, which returns the doc string defined in the function source code. Think of a program as a factory assembly line of sorts. Since the beginning we have been talking about objects, its data, functions, privacy etc., now it's time to know how is all this kept bounded. Gives you output "helloworld". In this tutorial, you’ll learn the basics of object-oriented programming in Python. and has certain behaviours such as walking, talking, eating etc. As we have already discussed about the general concepts related to Class, Objects, Inheritance etc, using an example in the previous tutorial. Here we try to encapsulate the data and functions together which belongs to the same class. As already discussed in the previous tutorial, an object is a physical entity, whereas class is … Similarly, the multiplication operator also acts differently based on the datatype of the variables with which it is used. Python supports Simple, Multiple and MultiLevel Inheritance. All we have to do is, create different functions with same name having different parameters. This concept is also kno… it gives, "hellohellohello". Everything in Python is an object, and almost everything has attributes and methods.